The Ph.D. full form in English is Doctor of Philosophy. It is a professional degree in most countries, the degree holder is qualified to teach their chosen subject at the university level or to work at their specialized level in their chosen field.
The word Philosophy comes from the Ancient Greek philosophia, which means ‘love of wisdom. This signified an individual who has taken a comprehensive general education in the fundamental issues of the current world. Love of wisdom is still required for Doctor of Philosophy in today’s time for those who apply to pursued knowledge in a much more specialized field.
What is Ph.D.?
The Ph.D. is a worldwide identified postgraduate degree of academic awarded by universities and higher education institutions to a student who has submitted an idea or study, based on wide and original research in their chosen field. The specificities of a Ph.D. degree vary depending upon where you are and which subject, you’re studying.
In general, Ph.D. is the top-level degree a student can achieve. A few institutions allow students to progress straight to a Ph.D. from their bachelor’s degree and it usually follows through with the master’s degree. Some institution too offers the option of ‘upgrade’ or ‘fast-track’ your master’s degree to a Ph.D., provided with a deemed to possess the required grades, skill, knowledge, and research abilities.
However, a Ph.D. is a course of three to four years of full-time study. In which the candidate finishes a substantial piece of original research presented as an idea or study. Some countries require coursework to be submitted for Ph.D. programs and also accept the portfolio of published papers.
Students should complete a ‘viva voce’ or internal exam of their Ph.D. This oral defence is taken with just a small number of examiners or in front of a large examination panel that usually lasts for one to three hours.
Although Ph.D. students were expected to study within campus under close supervision, distance learning and e-learning schemes have meant a growing number of universities are now accepting distance-learning and part-time Ph.D., students.
Ph.D. admission requirements
Generally speaking, Ph.D. admission requirements are related to the candidate’s grade and potential research capabilities. In a few institutions, a candidate is required with an honors degree or a master’s degree with great academic standing, and also with a bachelor’s degree with at least upper second-class honors.
A candidate can also apply for Ph.D. simply on the basis of your master’s degree grades Ph.D. admission requirement based on grades may also be based on the type of funding a student will be using and may be able to apply with lower grades if they self-fund your Ph.D.
Some institutions and subjects such as psychology, humanities, and science specify that students must find a tenured professor in their chosen institution to serve as their formal mentor and supervisor during their Ph.D. program before they can be formally taking the program. In some instances, students will assign a supervisor based on their research subject and methodology once they have been accepted into the Ph.D. program.
This is a good way to approach a faculty member in your selected institution before applying for a Ph.D. course. In demand to faculty to determine whether your interest line up with the department and maybe even help you to inspire in Ph.D. research options.
Some Ph.D. applications need proof of expertise in the particular language which they intend to study. Students can either provide the result or certificate of standardized language exam or give evidence of undergraduate or postgraduate completion inappropriate language.
As a part of your application some institutions ask for a record of your employment such as a resume otherwise, they will ask for your academic transcripts, including details of course modules. Also, students are asked for the details of other research projects that are completed, and any publication they have been featured in can help in application.
Several institutions take a personal statement as a short essay that a candidate can use to determine their passion for their chosen subject. Students can outline their reasons for wanting to study for a Ph.D., any extracurricular activities that are particularly relevant or should be emphasized, and any flexibility in your selected field of research. Many institutions have a guide to personal statements on their website which can also help the candidate for tailor their personal statement to every institution.
PhDs through MPhil
There is another option for the students who are willing to do a Ph.D. that is they can apply as a general research student or for an MPhil degree. MPhil is the development graduate degree granted for research work and can be likewise useful to the understudy who is not from the solid examination foundation. You will need to take some taught courses so you get cop up with things like research methods.
The one year of successful completion of the taught program may lead to the honor of the MRes degree, which includes more teaching aids than the MPhil and can be awarded in the position of a Ph.D. for a student who has not finished the required period to study the Ph.D. However, the successful completion of original research may lead to the honor of the MPhil degree, this can be achieved without having a defense of candidate study.
After the first or second year of research of the candidate if the institution is satisfied with the progress of your work, then, you may be able to apply for full Ph.D. registration. Usually, your mentor or guide will be given the charge of determining whether you are ready to progress to a Ph.D. If they find you are ready, then you will need to develop a title of your idea and select the Ph.D. program.
Alternatives to PhD
When looking for Ph.D. programs take into consideration that there are several types of degrees that have the term “doctor” in their title. There can be Juris Doctor that is common in Australia, Mexico, the US, Canada, and parts of Asia, the Doctor of Pharmacy(DPharm), the Doctor of Physical Therapy(DPT), and the Doctor of Medicine(MD) the version of US and Canada.
These degrees are usually not classified as PhDs as they lack the criteria required for Ph.D. that is academic research. Thus, these more kinds of doctorate certifications are rather referred to as passage-level doctorate certifications. Those who wish to pursue a Ph.D. may do later and this can be known as a ‘post-professional doctorate’.
There are some institutions that offer combined professional and research-training degrees, like the MD-PhD dual program, which is helpful for medical professionals looking to pursue a research career.
Degree higher than a PhD
In addition to several degrees which may be measured corresponding to a Ph.D., there are also courses considered to be a step above the Doctor of Philosophy(Ph.D.) that are ‘higher doctorate.’ These are generally normal in colleges of UK and some piece of European nations; in any case, they are progressively granted as privileged degrees. In this manner, the US doesn’t have such an arrangement of higher doctorates and proposition the titles just as privileged degrees. Adding ‘hc’ to the end of the title sometimes signifies the Honorary degree.
Some higher doctorate degree contains:
Doctor of Literature/letters(DLit/DLitt/LitD):
This degree is awarded as per the achievement made in Humanities or for original contribution to the creative arts.
Doctor of Civil Law:
It is the highest doctorate expecting the DD, provided on the basis of extremely perceptive and distinctive publications that comprise an important and original contribution to the study of law or politics in general.
Doctor of Science:
This degree is awarded in recognition of a continuous and considerable contribution to scientific knowledge outside that required for a Ph.D.
Doctor of Music(DMus):
It is awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and scholarly publication on Music in some commonwealth countries like the UK, Ireland, etc.
Doctor of Divinity:
This degree is generally identifying the recipient’s ministry-oriented achievement that is awarded above the Doctor of Theology.
Top 10 Ph.D. Universities in India
- Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
- Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
- Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
- Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
- Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
- Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
- University of Delhi
- University Of Hyderabad
- Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
- Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Best Universities in the world to do PhD
- University of Oxford
- California Institute of Technology
- Harvard University
- Stanford University
- University of Cambridge
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Princeton University
- Yale University
- University of Chicago
- Columbia University
I hope you have got an idea about what is Ph.D. and how you can pursue it. You also got to the how the research is done and you have to explore in your selected course and do original research and bring something new from it.